What is Chemosynthesis?
Chemosynthesis is defined as a process in which the preparation of organic materials (usually carbohydrates) originating from H2O and Co2 using chemical energy. Organisms or living things that carry out this chemosynthesis process are those who do not have chlorophyll, for example sulfur bacteria such as bergiatoa as well as thiotrix and also nitrifying bacteria such as nitrosomonas, nictobacter, bactoderma, and iron bacteria such as cladotrix.
Chemosynthesis itself is actually a reaction with the mechanism of anabolism. It is a biological conversion procession of a carbon molecule or it can be more, nitrogen compounds are also a source of food converted into organic compounds by oxidation. Chemosynthesis is an anabolic reaction using chemical energy. Energy is a type of energy obtained from chemical reactions namely oxidation. Organisms that carry out the chemosynthesis process are themselves called chemoautotrophs, especially for auotrophic organisms.
As mentioned earlier that the ability to do chemosynthesis can only be done by several types of organisms, precisely microorganisms. For example non-photosynthetic sulfur bacteria called Thionacillus and also a nitrogen bacteria called nitrosomonas as well as nitrosococcus. They are micro-organisms with marine habitats. They carry out the chemosynthesis process in order to obtain biomass from one or two carbon molecules. This sea creature is divided into two categories namely the first, micro-organisms in regions where there are rarely hydrogen molecules so that the energy available there is only the energy from the reaction of H2 and CO2. Both of these energies are quite large in carrying out the biomass production process.
Secondly, chemosistesis that occurs in the ocean occurs because there is a reaction between O2 and also the hydrogen substance between sufida and ammonia. In this condition, micro-organisms that do chemosynthesis depend heavily on photosynthetic activity that occurs elsewhere, where photosynthesis produces the O2 molecules they need to carry out their chemosynthetic processes
Examples of bacteria or other micro-organisms that carry out the chemosynthetic process are nitrobacter. It is capable of oxidizing nitrite compounds. As a result, the nitrate compound will then release energy which will then be used in the organic synthesis process. There are various examples of other micro-organisms that carry out chemosynthesis. But the most important thing is actually nitrifying bacteria whose habitat is in the soil. Because, the activity of these bacteria will enrich the soil indirectly with nitrogen. As we know that nitrogen is needed by plants to grow better. The bacterial activity in this soil is closely related to the level of soil fertility. In Japan itself, this bacterium has even been used as one of the “tools” of agriculture (a kind of organic fertilizer) that are important to use before starting the planting process.