How Pathogens are Transmitted? How Pathogens Cause Disease?

How Pathogens are Transmitted ?

1. Direct contact with infected person. It is the most important cause of disease transmission. If healthy persons come in contact with the materials discharged by diseased person, he may be infected by the pathogens present in the discharges.

2. Droplets spread pathogens. Coughing, sneezing, talking by infected persons spread pathogens which travel through droplets. The chance of being infected is more in closed rooms. The pathogens enter through nose and mouth.

3. Contact with soil. Some pathogens find their way into the soil and can survive for some time.Tetanus bacteria are found in animal stool and soil. The pathogens enter human body through cut or Injury.

4. Vectors. Insects, animals and human carrier spread pathogens. Animal and insect bite transmit pathogens of some serious diseases. Blood sucking insects, housefly, cockroach, rodents etc. also act as vector of various diseases.

5. Air as carrier. Air carries pathogen laden dust which enter directly through nasal opening or mouth or may contaminate food.

How do pathogens cause disease?
Pathogens cause diseases by damaging the tissue of the host or through secretion of toxins. Pathogens may damage the tissues of the internal organs such as digestive, respiratory and excretory organs, arteries, nerves, plasma membrane etc. and thus impair normal functions.

Pathogens also secrete deadly toxins within the body of the patient. Toxins produced by pathogens damage various organs, nerves, brain etc. Diseases like typhoid, cholera, tetanus, bubonic plague etc. are associated with toxins.

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