Steps in the Formation of mRNA from DNA

STEPS IN THE FORMATION OF mRNA FROM DNA

1. On signal from cytoplasm RNA polymerase binds to the promoter region of DNA double helix. The promoter is located on the 5’ end of the gene to be transcribed. The promoter determines which strand to be transcribed.

2. In the region where DNA strand is to be trascribed the RNA polymerase causes unwinding of the double helix of DNA. Only one strand called sense strand functions as template.

5. Various ribonucleoside triphosphates such as adenine triphosphate (ATP), guanosine tri-phosphate (GTP). cytidine triphosphate (CTP), uridine triphosphate (UTP) floating freely in cytoplasm joined to the bases of the DNA template by hydrogen bonds according to base pairing of the sense strand.

4. After linking with DNA-strand various ribonucleosides break off their high energy bond and thus in one hand become monophosphate and on the ohter hand releases energy. With the energy, the ribonucleotides attached to DNA strand join the ribonucleotides and thus a long m-RNA strand is
formed. 

5. On completion of transcription of m-RNA the polymerase gives termination signal. The m-RNA then leaves the DNA strand. Several m-RNA may be released from the same DNA strand one after
another.

6. As the RNA strand grows the DNA strands begin to rewind through hydrogen bonding and when the last ribonucleotide is added the transcription of m-RNA becomes complete and with this the rewinding of DNA strands also become complete.

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