Difference Between Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic Cell

What is the main Difference Between Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic Cell

Table: Differences Between Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic Cells

Characteristic Prokaryotic Cell Eukaryotic Cell
Size Size of cell is small (1-2 µm by 1-4 µm or less) Greater than 5 µm in diameter
Cell wall Present. Cell wall is formed of carbohydrates and proteins Cell wall if present (in plant cell) is formed of cellulose
Cell Type Mostly unicellular (some cyanobacteria may be multicellular) Mostly multicellular
Nucleus The nucleus as an organised body is absent. The genetic material lies freely in the cytoplasm because of the absence of a nuclear membrane Nucleus is a well organised body with a distinct nuclear membrane which delimits the genetic material from the cytoplasm
Ribosomes Ribosomes of prokaryotic cells consist of 50S and 30S subunits and belong to 70S category Ribosomes in eukaryotic cells consist of 60S and 40S subunits and belong to 80S category
Histone Histone is absent The protein-histone forms the most important part of genetic material in eukaryotic cells
Nucleolus and centrioles Nucleolus and centrioles are absent Nucleus and mitotic apparatus (the centrioles) are present
Flagella Consist of two protein building blocks Complex consist of multiple microtubules
Plasma membrane No carbohydrates and generally lacks sterols Sterols and carbohydrates that serve as receptors present
Permeability of nuclear membrane Absent Selective
Cytoplasmic streaming Absent Present
Cytoskeleton Absent Present
Pinocytosis Absent Present
Gas vacuoles Can be Present Absent
Mesosome Present Absent
Mitochondria Absent Present
Chloroplast Absent Present
Endoplasmic Reticulum Absent Present
Golgi structure Absent Present
Membrane bound vacuoles Absent Present
Lysosomes and peroxisomes Absent Present
Microtubules Absent Present
Cell division Binary fission Mitosis
Sexual reproduction No meiosis; transfer of DNA fragments only (conjugation) Involves Meiosis
Chromosome (DNA) arrangement Single circular chromosome lacks histones Multiple linear chromosomes with histones
Glycocalyx Present as a capsule or slime layer Present in some cells that lack a cell wall
Respiration Many strict anaerobes (Oxygen fatal) All aerobic, but some facultative anaerobes by secondary modification
Nitrogen fixation Some possess ability None possess this ability
Example Bacteria Animals and Plants

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