Amoebiasis Symptoms: The symptoms include mild dysentery alternating with constipation. In severe cases of dysentery, mucus and blood is discharged with stool. If the patient is not treated in the early stage, the disease may be prolonged and the condition may further deteriotate. Even the organism causing the disease may enter the lungs and the liver. The people living in hot and humid region are mostly affected by this disease.
Causative organism: Amoebic dysentery is caused by a protozoa called Entamoeba histolytica. It is a microscopic, unicellular organism. They can lives as ‘cyst’. The cyst can resist the effect of temperature, light, dehydration and medicine because it contains highly resistant wall around it. The cyst germinate with the return of favourable condition.
The organisms when live inside the alimentary canal secrete proteolytic enzyme which dissolves the muscus membrane. They feed on the blood and the dissolved mucus. Excessive colonization on the mucus layer causes ulceration of the wall of alimentary canal. The severely affected patient therefore discharge blood and mucus profusely. The organism in chronic patient may attack lungs, liver, and even the brain.
Transmission: Infected persons discharge cyst of the organism through stool. Under unhygienic condition the cyst may contaminate water, soil and even the vegetable grown in contaminated soil. Disease spreads through drinking water, milk and food if taken without boiling. The infected person may also spread the disease in various other ways through unhygienic living. The symptomless carrier person may also spread the disease.
Control: The measures include (1) The treatment of the affected person.
(2) Keeping drinking water, milk and food free from contamination.
(3) Taking of boiled water, food and milk.
(4) Maintenance of Strict personal hygiene. There is no immunization method for control of the disease.